French Wine

Wine-Searcher editorial  ·  Last updated 26-Oct-2021
French wine: an enduring tour de force

France – the home of Bordeaux, Burgundy and Champagne – is arguably the world's most important wine-producing country. For centuries, it has produced wine in greater quantity – and of reportedly greater quality – than any other nation. Wine is ingrained in French culture at almost every level of society; it is the drink of both the elite and the common people, and a key symbol in Roman Catholicism, France's majority religion.

The enduring attraction of French wine is not necessarily its volume or prestige, however, but rather the variety of styles available. Consumer preferences have changed over the centuries, encouraging the development of new styles of wine from the terrain and grape varieties available to France's vignerons. Red, white, rosé, sweet, dry, sparkling, opulent, austere, mineral-scented, fruity – French vineyards have produced wines to match each of these descriptors. © Wine-Searcher

The diversity of French wine is due, in part, to the country's wide range of climates. Champagne, its most northerly region, has one of the coolest climates anywhere in the wine-growing world – in stark contrast to the warm, dry Rhone Valley 350 miles (560km) away in the southeast. Bordeaux, in the southwest, has a maritime climate heavily influenced by the Atlantic ocean to its west and the various rivers that wind their way between its vineyards. Far from any oceanic influence, eastern regions such as Burgundy and Alsace have a continental climate, with warm, dry summers and cold winters. In France's deep south, Provence and Languedoc-Roussillon enjoy a definitively Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot summers and relatively mild winters.

Geology and topography play equally important roles in the diversity of French wine. The country's large number of independently recognized wine regions and sub-regions reflects its wide range of soil types – and the landscapes that created them. Each sub-region can be defined by its particular geographical features, which in turn create specific characteristics in the wines produced there. From the granite hills of Beaujolais to the famous chalky slopes of Chablis and the gravels of the Medoc, the sites on which France's vineyards have been developed are considered of vital importance and are at the heart of the concept of terroir.

A region's terroir dictates the grape varieties used to produce its traditional wines. In the days before efficient vine husbandry, vignerons grew whatever was best suited to the local soils and climate, choosing from the (often limited) selection of grape varieties available to them. Thus, the relationship between French wine regions and their key varieties have evolved naturally over many centuries, as exemplified by the close relationship between Pinot Noir and Burgundy. Where a variety has been used in multiple regions, the style(s) of wine it produces in each also evolved naturally. Compare, for example, the difference between Chardonnay in Champagne (crisp, tart, acidic, sparkling), and in Macon (rounder, riper, richer, fruitier).

France's appellation system was created in the early 20th century and has since been imitated in many other countries. This complex system of laws ultimately defines each wine region and its boundaries and imposes strict rules around winemaking practices. Protecting the names of French wines and guaranteeing the quality and provenance of the products themselves are its key objectives. No other country has developed its appellation system to such an extent; as of 2012, there were more than 450 controlled appellations under the AOC titles and a further 150 Vin de Pays/IGP titles.

A key factor in the development of the complex, comprehensive categorization of France's wine styles and quality levels is their sheer volume and diversity, as discussed above. Every year, the country produces more than 50 million hL of wine (6500 million standard bottles) from around 1.9m acres (775,000ha) of vineyards.

French Wines
Based on search frequency, updated monthly
Product
 
Grape
Popularity
Critics' Score
Avg. Price
Wine Label of Chateau Mouton Rothschild, Pauillac, France
1st in popularity
17,517,444
95 / 100
Wine Label of Dom Perignon Brut, Champagne, France
2nd in popularity
5,849,356
94 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Lafite Rothschild, Pauillac, France
3rd in popularity
24,683,671
95 / 100
Wine Label of Petrus, Pomerol, France
4th in popularity
96,621,567
96 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Margaux, Margaux, France
6th in popularity
18,864,940
95 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Latour, Pauillac, France
7th in popularity
20,396,185
96 / 100
Wine Label of Louis Roederer Cristal Millesime Brut, Champagne, France
8th in popularity
7,411,226
95 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Haut-Brion, Pessac-Leognan, France
10th in popularity
15,802,450
95 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau d'Yquem, Sauternes, France
11th in popularity
11,361,839
96 / 100
Wine Label of Domaine de la Romanee-Conti Romanee-Conti Grand Cru, Cote de Nuits, France
12th in popularity
571,613,800
97 / 100
Wine Label of Domaine de la Romanee-Conti La Tache Grand Cru Monopole, Cote de Nuits, France
13th in popularity
158,728,868
96 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Pontet-Canet, Pauillac, France
14th in popularity
3,399,364
94 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Lynch-Bages, Pauillac, France
16th in popularity
4,103,737
93 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Cheval Blanc, Saint-Emilion Grand Cru, France
17th in popularity
18,374,941
95 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Montrose, Saint-Estephe, France
18th in popularity
4,563,110
94 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande, Pauillac, France
19th in popularity
5,328,733
94 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Leoville-Las Cases 'Grand Vin de Leoville', Saint-Julien, France
20th in popularity
6,523,104
95 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Cos d'Estournel, Saint-Estephe, France
21st in popularity
5,389,983
94 / 100
Wine Label of Krug Vintage Brut, Champagne, France
22nd in popularity
10,534,966
96 / 100
Wine Label of Salon Cuvee 'S' Le Mesnil Blanc de Blancs Brut, Champagne, France
23rd in popularity
33,228,019
95 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Palmer, Margaux, France
24th in popularity
8,513,723
95 / 100
Wine Label of Domaine Armand Rousseau Pere et Fils Chambertin Grand Cru, Cote de Nuits, France
27th in popularity
110,984,646
96 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Pichon-Longueville au Baron de Pichon-Longueville, Pauillac, France
28th in popularity
4,440,611
94 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Leoville Barton, Saint-Julien, France
29th in popularity
2,786,866
93 / 100
Wine Label of Chateau Leoville Poyferre, Saint-Julien, France
30th in popularity
3,001,240
93 / 100
Only the first 20 pages shown
To see how Wine-Searcher uses average pricing and professional wine critic scores on this page, please see Average Wine Prices and Wine Scores. To find out about popularity, please see Wine Ranks.
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